How do live-in domestic workers differ from live-out domestic workers? An analysis of demographics and work characteristics.

Arcand, Carolyn.

International Journal of Care and Caring 4, no. 3 (2020): 413-427.


This study uses nationally representative data to examine differences in income, usual hours worked and other selected characteristics between live-in and live-out domestic employees, focusing on maids/housekeepers, childcare workers and personal care aides. American Community Survey data of n = 8,620 domestic workers are used for the five-year period spanning 2012-16. Regression modelling reveals that live-in employees work significantly more weekly hours than live-out employees while concurrently earning lower annual incomes. This study largely confirms the findings of multiple prior qualitative studies of the differences between live-in and live-out domestic work, with the benefit of drawing from a uniquely large sample.

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